microscope is a device that allows the visualization of bodies and objects so small that they cannot be seen by the human eye. It was created in 1590 by Zacharias Janssen, and consists of the arrangement of two concave lenses, placed in series within a cylinder.It was used in the medical field in 1665, while William Harvey was studying blood capillaries. In addition, thanks to the microscope, scientists began with the studies of microbiology , observing the behavior of microscopic beings and later designing the first mechanisms to protect human health.The structure and operation of the initial microscope are based on the phenomenon of refraction of light . Modern microscopes have sophisticated electronic components that help produce a clearer resolution image.

The microscope is used to:

The word “microscope” comes from the Greek terms ” micron ” which means “small” and ” skopein ” which means “to observe, to look”. Therefore, it is used to observe bodies and small objects .

It is used in countless fields that involve the study of organisms that measure less than 1 millimeter in length. Among the areas in which it is applied are:

  • Industry
  • Botany
  • Microbiology
  • Pharmaceutical
  • electronics


The microscope can be used in the chemical industry to examine the composition of a mineral sample. You can see the crystalline structures of the salts that are there.

It can be used in milk factories to take samples after the pasteurization process, and observe the quality of this process.


With the microscope, the progress of the development of plant cells can be observed, in a sample taken from a leaf.


In this area, the growth of a colony of bacteria can be monitored, and its population estimated after a period of time.


The microscope is an indispensable tool in the development and manufacture of medicines. With this device, the biochemical action of the drug under test can be observed to combat infection by microorganisms.

In the same way, vaccines have been developed, studying their interaction with a blood sample, loaded with lymphocytes.


Microscopes are used during the manufacture of microcomponents , such as the processors in today’s computers.

Microscope variants

The microscope has a head called a “revolver”, which carries a number of “graduations”, on cylinders called “objectives.” Through them the observation is made.

Over time, variants of the microscope have emerged, which are the result of technological implementations to improve observation down to nanometric levels.

The electron microscopes , for example, different function as they do optical microscopes. They work by reflecting electrons , which bounce back and form a magnified image of what is observed. Well managed, these manage to increase the image up to a thousand times.

Among these variants are:

    • Compound microscope
    • Optical microscope
    • Steering or stereo microscope
    • Digital microscope
    • Fluorescent microscope
    • Electronic microscope
    • Computerized microscope

Samantha Robson
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Dr. Samantha Robson ( CRN: 0510146-5) is a nutritionist and website content reviewer related to her area of ​​expertise. With a postgraduate degree in Nutrition from The University of Arizona, she is a specialist in Sports Nutrition from Oxford University and is also a member of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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