The survey is a method of gathering information in statistical research. They consist of questionnaires designed to obtain the desired data , useful for the development of the work of measurement and calculation of parameters.Surveys are the most common tool for conducting market research . This way you can know the response of potential customers, in terms of their preferences, customs and habits. To do this, a representative portion of the population is selected , because it would be an extremely arduous and expensive job to apply it to all the inhabitants at the same time.Surveys have been applied for centuries to find out specific measures (such as bedtime, monthly income, number of parties during the week) in representative groups of society (such as students, employees, businessmen). The information obtained is useful to take action based on it (such as launching a product for sale).

What are the surveys for?

Surveys, being a method of collecting information, are used to carry out a statistical study on certain groups of the population. With this, a variety of purposes is pursued, especially that of knowing the opinion of the population, without the need to address it in its entirety. For this process, a sample with a manageable number of people is taken into account.

Surveys are used to:

  • Measure political preferences
  • Measure the effects of certain drugs
  • Know the opinion of a representative fraction of society
  • Know the educational levels of the population
  • Know the socioeconomic levels of the people
  • Calculate the preference of one product over another
  • Know what type of population a product or service will be aimed at
  • Know if the public liked a service or product
  • Calculate which population group is most affected by a phenomenon
  • Adjust and update statistics
  • Know the results of a program
  • Know if people’s ideologies have changed
  • Predicting political elections
  • Predicting people’s reaction to a change

Generate statistics

The main use of surveys is to study population parameters , such as:

  • Level of studies
  • Employment status
  • Health condition
  • Level of satisfaction with life
  • Age
  • Birth rate
  • Mortality rate
  • Life expectancy

The compendium of data obtained is used to calculate trends and patterns by means of statistical factors. Thus, a complete and manageable statistical record is formed . All types of survey can be used for this and by the most practical means, such as:

  • Printed on paper
  • Telephone surveys
  • Web surveys
  • Personal interviews

Surveys are used to find out the preferences of a group of people.

Measure political preferences

Surveys are a tool used by political parties to register their affiliates and supporters; During political campaigns, it is thus possible to know towards which candidate or party the preferences of a certain sample of the population are inclined.

Know the tastes and preferences of consumers

Large companies and companies need surveys to know if their products or services are well received by consumers. In addition, it is possible to predict whether new product proposals would work successfully with your potential buyers.

Since surveying the entire population would be extremely laborious, time-consuming and expensive, surveys are applied after having determined a representative sample, with a portion of the total.

Businesses that use market research can use telephone surveys, web surveys, paper surveys, or personal interviews. Some organizations even pay for people to fill out surveys, as long as the answers match what the study requires.

Types of surveys

There are several types of surveys depending on the way in which the information is obtained from the respondents. They address the characteristics of the population that are intended to be known, such as their social status, their demographic situation, their social habits, their diet, their ideology and their activities.

In this way, certain demographic patterns can be identified with which the population’s needs, their priorities and the effects of certain products that could be offered can be calculated . Similarly, a decision may be made based on the information taken.

Among the types of surveys are:

  • Descriptive surveys
  • Analytical surveys
  • Closed polls
  • Open polls

Descriptive surveys

The descriptive surveys detailing the status or living conditions in certain portion of the population, and serve to measure their generalities and find a pattern in them. It can be about the economic situation in which the respondents live, their educational levels and other variables that affect them.

Based on the recognized parameters, a decision is established regarding a product that is intended to be launched on the market, or regarding the beginning of a project whose function is to obtain profits and have a constant number of clients.

Analytical surveys

The analytical surveys are those in which the respondent asks the reason for each answer placed in the questionnaire. It serves to know the context that prompts the person to answer the way they do. It can be political preferences, trademarks or particular tastes.

In this type of survey, there are at least two answers to choose from, and depending on the one chosen by the respondent, an explanation will be requested. It is about obtaining additional information , extremely useful when taking into account strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats of a project that you want to undertake.

Closed polls

The polls closed are those that do not allow the respondent to answer beyond the options offered, and are used to calculate a more practical way the preferences of the targeted audience, for a product that wants to offer. A reasoned opinion on the answer is not required, it is enough to mark the option. It is applied in market studies .

Open polls

The open surveys are those that offer the respondent the opportunity to answer the questionnaire at their discretion and in your own words. They serve to obtain a more authentic information and attached to the environment in which it operates, its preferences and its tastes.

Samantha Robson
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Dr. Samantha Robson ( CRN: 0510146-5) is a nutritionist and website content reviewer related to her area of ​​expertise. With a postgraduate degree in Nutrition from The University of Arizona, she is a specialist in Sports Nutrition from Oxford University and is also a member of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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