The nitrofurantoin , is known as an urinary antiseptic sensitive know, it is a synthetic nitrofuran used for treatments that will tackle problems of infections in the lower urinary tract, especially in chronic diseases.

It is an antibiotic, which has the function of eliminating the bacteria that cause infections such as cystitis, which is an infection that is created in the bladder. It can be used by pregnant women during the first three months of pregnancy, since other antibiotics that treat this problem are not recommended during pregnancy.

This drug is active against almost all large positive and negative bacteria. Despite the fact that other antibacterials are the most selected by doctors to treat this type of infection, nitrofurantoin is used as a long-term preventive treatment.

Due to the rapidity with which the various pathogenic microorganisms that resist antibiotics develop and with the possibility of their being activated again in the near future, there may be a need to use anti-infective drugs that have existed since antiquity such as nitrofurantoin.

What is nitrofurantoin for?

The nitrofurantoin antibiotic does not have the ability to reach high infections that are concentrated in the kidneys, so they are not effective in killing the bacteria that cause kidney infections, while in the bladder if it manages to eradicate bacteria effectively, in In this case, this drug can be used to treat cystitis, as long as these bacteria are sensitive to this drug.

Exactly, the mechanism of action of nitrofurantoin is not well understood, it is only known that it is a drug that manages to inhibit the synthesis of some bacterial enzymes that are concentrated in the urinary tract, causing an infection in the bladder area.

Currently, this medication is not only used to treat and prevent urinary tract infections, they are also prescribed for other types of related infections. Among the specific treatments it treats are:

  • Treatment application for women with cystitis, who are in the first three periods of gestation.
  • Treatment for cystitis with isolated bacteria, found in urine culture.
  • Treatment for pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteria.
  • To prevent cystitis having constant urinary infections in women.

Trade names for nitrofurantoin

This antibiotic has existed for many years in the pharmaceutical market, they can be found in generic form or with some commercial names that we present below:

  • Carlon
  • Macrodantin
  • Biofurin
  • Furantoina
  • Furadantina
  • Furitex

These antibiotics can be obtained in two presentations:

  • In capsules : they contain carbomer, compressible sugar, magnesium stearate, corn starch, yellow colorant No. 10, gelatin, blue colorant No. 1, edible ink, lactose, red colorant No. 40, titanium dioxide, talc and povidone.
  • In oral suspension : it is composed of citric acid, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, magnesium, aluminum silicate, flavoring, purified water, glycerin, sorbitol, propylparaben, sodium citrate and methylparaben.

How Nitrofurantoin Is Used

As mentioned above, the presentation of nitrofurantoin comes in suspension and in tablets, to be ingested orally. Treatment mostly consists of taking 2 to 4 times a day, for 7 days. It should always be taken at the same time after meals and the indications of the treating physician must be strictly followed.

It is advisable to use it exactly as the doctor has prescribed it, since the dose cannot be extended and in case of recurrence of the infection, self-medication should be avoided and the doctor should be consulted to prescribe a new treatment.

The liquid solution should be shaken enough before each intake so that the medicine mixes evenly. A teaspoon or cup should be used to measure the proper amount for each dose.

If in the first days of the treatment you do not feel an improvement or the infection worsens, you should immediately consult the doctor in the situation so that he may indicate the corresponding measures.

It is important to finish with the indicated treatment, even if you feel an improvement, because if you stop taking it earlier than indicated, the infection could return and it would be more difficult to treat, since the bacteria would become stronger and put more resistance to the antibiotics

Recommended doses of nitrofurantoin

The most indicated doses of nitrofurantoin in the treatments for bladder infections and cystitis are:

  • In adults or children who are 12 years of age and older: You should take 1 100 mg nitrofurantoin pill every 12 hours for 5 to 7 days.
  • In children from 1 month of birth to 12 years of age: they should take 5 to 7 mg a day for 4 days, depending on their body weight.

The doses that are indicated to prevent infections are:

  • Continuous: 1 pill of 100 mg daily for 6 or 12 months.
  • Postcoital: 1 tablet of 100 mg each time you have intercourse.

Precautions to follow before taking nitrofurantoin

Nitrofurantoin should not be used if you are hypersensitive or allergic to this drug or any of its components, the treating physician should be involved. Some of the allergic symptoms can be, breathing difficulties, asthma, swelling of the face, lips or tongue, skin rash, itchy body, hives, sweating, weakness or fainting.

It is not prudent to take it either, in case of diseases related to the kidneys, especially if the urine is scarce or it purifies the blood in a poor way.

When the woman is between the last 3 months of pregnancy or during lactation.

If you had a liver disorder, when taking this medicine in previous treatments.

If you suffer from diseases such as diabetes, the respiratory system, the nervous system, anemia, peripheral neuritis or abnormal problems in the blood.

Avoid or consult your doctor, when you are taking another drug that influences the effect of this antibiotic such as antacids for ingestion, oral contraceptives, magnesium trisilicate, drugs for hypertension, gout or alkalization of the urine. .

It is important to eat before or during the taking of this medicine, since stomach pains can occur.

Nitrofurantoin Side Effects

It is necessary to know what are the adverse effects that can have consequences on health when taking this type of antibiotic.

Like all medicines, in some cases the body may have allergic reactions due to their ingestion, in this case some of these effects are:

  • Breathing difficulties, cough, chills, fever, or shortness of breath.
  • Jaundice, caused by inflammation in the liver, yellowing of the eyes and skin may occur.
  • Emotional changes, this causes headaches, eye difficulty, mental confusion, pressure inside the skull or weakness.
  • Alteration in blood cells, bruising, clotting, continuous colds, anemia, sore throats and fever.
  • Skin rash, blisters, hives, peeling, or redness.
  • Swelling in the peripheral nerves and tenderness in muscle movements.
  • Loss of appetite, diarrhea, general malaise, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and stomach pains.

Conclusion of the use of nitrofurantoin

Generally speaking, it can be said that nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic that is prescribed to treat urinary tract or urinary tract infections. It is in charge of fighting the bacteria that cause these infections. It has the ability to act effectively on the infection and prevents the reproduction of these annoying bacteria.

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