All people use logic daily, to a greater or lesser degree, even in the most everyday tasks. In fact, they use it from the time they get up until they go to bed. This is because thinking logically is an activity taught from childhood.

Logic, as science and reasoning, has been fundamental to our society because it serves to explain and understand the environment that surrounds us. In fact, it is because of her that many of the great discoveries and inventions in history have been made.

In addition, there are countless intellectuals who used this way of reasoning to completely change their areas of knowledge. So fundamental has logic become in our lives that it is taught throughout schooling.

If you are interested in the subject, then we leave you everything you need to know about logic, its functions, types and field of study.

What is logic?

There is no single concept of logic that completely defines the word. Surprisingly, since ancient times there has been an attempt to give it a single meaning; those who were most focused on it were the Greek philosophers. However, that meaning does not yet exist.

Despite this, logic can be understood or defined as a way of reasoning or a science that is responsible for deduction and induction. In other words, it is one that studies the laws of human reasoning, whose main characteristic is coherence.

What does logic study?

Logic mainly studies human thought and criteria when it comes to demonstrating, deducing or inferring. His field of study also extends to fallacies and lies in argumentation.

Basically, logic teaches how to think correctly to arrive at a valid and reasonable conclusion, at least scientifically speaking. Likewise, it is what helps to understand when thoughts are completely incoherent.

Logic also studies philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. The truth is, it is applicable to a wide number of areas, including everyday life. In fact, logical thinking is what gives meaning to our reality.

How does the logic work?

The logic works practically through inference, which allows us to deduce valid results and discard those that are false. That said, the most basic way to reason logically is to do so through premises that lead to a true conclusion.

If the premises formulated by the thought are valid and, furthermore, true, then the conclusion will have to be correct. The following is an example of how logic works in simple situations:

  • First premise: every Monday, the authorities close the amusement park for maintenance measures.
  • Second premise:  today is Monday.
  • Conclusion:  the amusement park is closed.

Importance of logic

In almost all aspects of life, logic plays a fundamental role. First of all, it serves to understand the world in a correct way. This makes it almost impossible to live without applying it.

Almost all formal science makes use of logic in order to function. Mathematics, physics and computer science are some of them. Even in careers in the humanities and social sciences, logic intervenes. For example, in psychology.

So transcendental is logic that it has traveled hundreds of branches of knowledge and has been studied by a multitude of intellectuals since ancient times. In fact, Aristotle applies it and breaks it down at the time of writing his famous “Rhetoric.”

Types of logic

Like any science, logic is divided into types or areas. This list of branches of logic or types of logic is quite long. But the best known are the following:

  • Informal logic
  • Mathematical logic
  • Philosophical logic
  • Scientific logic

There are some authors who also refer to inductive logic and deductive logic, which is especially useful in argumentation. Both focus on the validity of the premises to support a conclusion or thesis.

Natural logic and scientific logic

For some authors and experts on the subject, there are two types of logic that contain all the others. These are natural logic and scientific logic. The first logic is known to almost everyone in the world, as it is what we normally call “common sense”.

Natural logic relies entirely on people’s past experiences and, in fact, we are all said to be born with it. This develops during growth. Thus, this is the logic that tells us that when there are gray clouds in the sky it is likely that it will rain, because we have already witnessed the phenomenon before.

On the other hand, scientific logic is one that is acquired by studying and which is reinforced as more knowledge about it is internalized. In fact, among scientific logics are mathematical and computational logic.

What is mathematical logic for?

This type of logic is also called “symbolic” and it is the one that is applied in mathematics and in various fields of this. Its application comes from ancient Greece.

This has specialized in creating logical systems that help determine if an argument is correct or not. In addition, it has its own language, which is used even when applying other types of logic, such as computational.

Symbolic logic allows the development of mathematical thinking, which is why it serves to reason effectively through methods and solve problems in a short measure of time.

What is scientific logic for?

It serves mainly to formulate hypotheses and demonstrate them satisfactorily. It works with the famous scientific method, the foundations of which were established by Descartes in the 16th century.

With scientific logic it is possible to develop projects and theories that truly work. Usually, it is the most used in universities, institutions and companies dedicated to research.

What is logic good for in everyday life?

In everyday life, logic is extremely important to coexist properly with others and to understand a multitude of natural phenomena. Things as simple as the reasons why it rains, the sun rises or snow falls, are explained through logic. Even to perform easy tasks, you need to think logically.

It is so relevant that when a subject does not act in a logical way, he cannot integrate into society in a satisfactory way, since this is a characteristic required by the human being.

Logic stimulates curiosity and causes people to wonder how and why the world works. And even more, that they strive to find and understand the answers to these questions.

Children are taught to reason from the moment they enter school. In fact, there are people who, as they grow up, dedicate themselves entirely to studying areas of logic and developing them.

Finally, logic is essential for the human being, because he could not progress without it. In reality, logical reasoning is a characteristic or power attributed only to people. This allows us to understand ourselves and, even more, others. It also helps us to function in society: it is through logic that we explain ourselves, interpret and shape our reality.

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Dr. Samantha Robson ( CRN: 0510146-5) is a nutritionist and website content reviewer related to her area of ​​expertise. With a postgraduate degree in Nutrition from The University of Arizona, she is a specialist in Sports Nutrition from Oxford University and is also a member of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.

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