Censuses are a process of counting all the people who live in a certain region or country . It is based on various executions such as evaluation, analysis and classification. Every developed and organized country must have census processes.
The regions worldwide have a census to be able to know the number of old people, young people and children who live in that country. In general, at the time of the census, the person in charge can carry out a survey to obtain more specific data, which are used to carry out studies and population analysis.
What is the function of censuses?
Three main functions stand out:
- Censuses have a main function, which is to know the number of inhabitants of a country or a certain region, although they are also carried out to fulfill other functions that positively affect the population or governments.
- Censuses allow us to analyze wealth in a determined way and how they are distributed in the territory, it also helps to know the needs of the sectors, allowing the state to satisfy them and improve their living conditions by expanding and strengthening public management.
- Censuses allow any analysis to begin at the governmental level, it is also the beginning of hundreds of investigations at different labor levels, whether in the economic, administrative, works or social entities. One of the most important functions of censuses is that thanks to them, geographic maps and cartographic bases can be developed where the population of said country or region is distributed.
What are the types of censuses?
There are different types of censuses, each one has its own characteristics, functions and purposes.
Census in fact, or de facto
This is the census in which the entire current population of the country or region determined by visiting the homes is registered. In this census, certain data must be obtained from the people who live in the given dwelling, through different surveys that are part of the protocol.
Census of law
This census is very similar to the de facto or de facto census, since in the same way the data of the people who live in the house must be obtained, and also of those who are absent at the time of the census.
It is carried out to collect the necessary data to carry out different statistics about the population, in order to reach a common goal with the inhabitants.
This census is carried out when the date of an electoral process approaches, to find out the number of people who have the right to vote and the number of voters in a certain sector. The process of this census is usually very easy.
The purpose of this census is to know the number of inhabitants of a country in order to carry out a more organized government administration. This census is usually carried out periodically.
Who is in charge of conducting the census?
The entity in charge of conducting the censuses is called the national statistical institute. This is a self-governing body. It has certain obligations such as carrying out evaluations, research and statistics such as population and economic censuses.
Thanks to this institute, various government public entities function in an organized and correct manner due to the different data and statistics that the institute provides them.
The national statistical institute is in turn made up of other smaller systems that work together, these are:
- The central statistics system: It has the function of planning and developing various research and analysis plans and processes.
- State statistical system: It is made up of the people who carry out and coordinate different plans at the state level, and they also have the power to form smaller systems to streamline statistical and coordination work.
- Municipal statistical system: in this system all the operations of investigations, analysis and statistics of the municipalities are managed, these are under the supervision of the largest systems such as the central statistics system.
How often should a census be conducted?
According to the laws established in the constitutions of the countries, the census process must be carried out every 10 years, specifically it is carried out in the years that end in zero. The censuses that are carried out every 10 years are those that record all the data and the number of inhabitants of a country.
More continuous censuses can be carried out, depending on the purpose of this, since in general censuses are carried out periodically to be able to know the different needs of the inhabitants of a certain sector, and thus be able to satisfy them by expanding the social work plan.
Why is it important to do censuses?
Censuses are one of the largest and most important processes carried out in the countries, since it allows obtaining different data on the population. Thanks to the data obtained from this process, different social projects that benefit the population can be planned, such as the construction of works, investment in public sectors and improvement in basic services.
With the censuses, the number of people who live in the different sectors and regions is known, as well as the demand for work that exists. In addition, it allows to know all the characteristics of the different communities.
It is important that the censuses are carried out, since from them the number of the young, adult and elderly population is known, as well as the number of men and women. The level of the existing passive population is also known.
How is the information obtained in the censuses used?
Thanks to the censuses, the state has at its disposal information that it uses in a positive way to benefit the population of a certain sector or country. The information is used to create statistics about population levels, economic and social levels.
The information is also used to carry out research processes that involve the population. Whenever a census is carried out, the information obtained is truthful and of high quality, which is why it is usually used for large projects, such as: improvement and expansion of basic public services, construction and development of public works.
The information allows the state and government entities to know the current situation of the populations. The information is also used to create geographic and cartographic maps to locate the densest sectors according to the population. In many countries, governments use census information to be able to distribute products and goods among the population.
Advantages of censuses
Great benefits can be obtained from censuses thanks to their different advantages:
- It allows to know the amount of population that exists in a country or region.
- It helps to know the different existing communities.
- It allows to know the needs presented by the inhabitants of the communities.
- Help in the organization and planning of the various social works carried out by the institutions.
- They make known the sectors with the highest demand for work, as well as the most passive sectors.
- Statistics are made from the information they offer.
- It helps to calculate the investments to be made in the public health and education sectors.
- Governments with censuses obtain information about the number of existing immigrants.
Disadvantages of censuses
Although it has great benefits, censuses have their downside:
- It is a process that requires maximum organization so that the results are of quality.
- Censuses are a very high-cost operation, both on the economic and social sides, since it requires the mobilization of many people for the process, as well as a large amount of money to finance it.
- The final result of the census can take a long time.
- Censuses often come out with defects in terms of the number of the population, since it is a very complicated process where there is always a margin of error.
The census is a procedure that is carried out in all the countries of the world in order to obtain information about the population that inhabits it. This is carried out by a specialized institution, since personal data is requested during the census process, and all the information obtained must be protected and positively manipulated.
Censuses are generally carried out every 10 years, but some are always smaller and of less importance for some beneficial purpose. When the census is carried out, most of the time the people in charge of carrying it out go house to house to request the required data, or if not, the inhabitants will have to go to the assigned place to give the data.
Every country that has an organized government system conducts censuses to be up-to-date regarding the migratory movement, the demands for work, the needs of the communities and the number of inhabitants.
Dr. Samantha Robson ( CRN: 0510146-5) is a nutritionist and website content reviewer related to her area of expertise. With a postgraduate degree in Nutrition from The University of Arizona, she is a specialist in Sports Nutrition from Oxford University and is also a member of the International Society of Sports Nutrition.